First Indian Scientist to Win Nobel Prize
Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (C.V. Raman) was the
first Indian scientist to win Nobel Prize. C.V. Raman was awarded the
1930 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the scattering of light and
for the discovery of the Raman effect, which is named after him. Raman
effect relates to the inelastic scattering of a photon. When light is
scattered from an atom or molecule, most photons are elastically
scattered (Rayleigh scattering). The scattered photons have the same
energy (frequency) and, therefore, wavelength, as the incident photons.
However, a small fraction of scattered light (approximately 1 in 10
million photons) is scattered from excitations with optical frequencies
different from, and usually lower than, the frequency of the incident
photons. Raman effect is helpful in analyzing the composition of
liquids, gases, and solids.